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想要托福阅读27?这个技巧一定要掌握!

来源:本站发布时间:2019-11-15编辑:苏州朗阁外语培训中心36人看过

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事实信息题是托福阅读的主流题型

是所有题型中占比最重的一个题型

对于事实信息题来说,托福考生可以从题目出发

找到关键词,定位文章,找到关键句,然后再进行同义转换

今天,我们一起拆解TPO真题

了解除了通过题目的核心词以外,

还有哪些其他的定位技巧


// 通过专有名词的(人名/地名)定位

Paragraph5: 

When oceanic islands are far enough apart to permit populations to evolve inisolation, but close enough to allow occasional dispersions to occur, they are effectivelyoutdoor laboratories of evolution. The Galapagos islandchain is one of the world’s greatest showcases of evolution. Each islandwas born from underwater volcanoes and was gradually covered by organisms derivedfrom strays that rode the ocean currents and winds from other islands and continents.

题 目:

Paragraph 5 supports theidea that Galapagos island chain was able to become one of world’s greatest showcases of evolution primarily because of”

A. the richness of the volcanic soil of each of the islandsin the chain

B. the distance of the individual islands from each otherand from the mainland

C. the relativity long time it took for the islands to becomecovered by organisms

D. the outdoor laboratories that scientists have built onthe islands to study evolution

---题目解析:

题目里出现里大写字母的专有名词,题目问的是段落“Galapagos Island”chain成为了世界上最大的进化陈列窗的一个的原因是什么。那么定位到文章黄色标注的那句话,但是并没有原因出现。

整个段落一共只有三句话,那么很显然,这个段落的结构是第一句话讲的是原因,也就是说当海洋的岛屿要足够远允许数量在隔离的情况下进化但是又要足够近,允许偶尔分散的发生。接下来Galapagos island只是在举例子而已。正确答案应该是B。跟距离相关的。(在这个题目里出现引号,如果题目里出现引号说明一定是原文的原句)


// 数 字 定 位 

不管是题目里还是答案里如果出现数字的话,都以数字定位文章,找到相关关键句。

Paragraph5:

The coastal hypothesis has gained increasing support in recent years becausethe remains of large land animals, such as caribou and brown bears, have been foundin southeastern Alaska dating between 10,000 and 12,500 years ago. This is the timeperiod in which most scientists formerly believed the area to be inhospitable forhumans. It has been suggested that if the environment were capable of supportingbreeding populations of bears, there would have been enough food resources to supporthumans. Fladmark and other believe that the first humancolonization of America occurred by boat along the Northwest Coast during the verylate Ice Age, possibly as early as 14,000 years ago. The most recent geologicevidence indicates that it may have been possible for people to colonize ice-freeregions along the continental shelf that were still exposed by the lower sea levelbetween13,000 and 14,000 years ago.

题目:

According to paragraph5, the most recent geologic research provides support for a first colonization ofAmerica dating as far as back as

A)16000 years ago

B)14000 years ago

C)12500 years ago

D)10000years ago

---题目解析:

这道题目是答案里出现数字,通过答案的数字直接定位到文章,A答案16000,文章里没有,暂时先放一下,14000在文章出现的地方有两个。关键句在文章里已标注。First human colonization应该可以追溯到14000年之前。所以应该是B。

机考的时候,对于密密麻麻的文字来说,出现数字的时候一定是比较醒目比较容易找到的。


// 题目里关键词是原文的同义转换

去看TPO时发现,有一些事实信息题题目里关键词已经是文章原词的同义转换。

Paragraph 6: 

All this applies, of course, only toan adult leatherback. Hatchlingsare simply too small to conserve body heat, even with insulationand countercurrent exchange systems. We do not know how old, or how large, a leatherback has to be before it canswitch from a cold-blooded to a warm-blooded mode of life. Leatherbacks reach theirimmense size in a much shorter time than it takes other sea turtles to grow. Perhapstheir rush to adulthood is driven by a simple need to keep warm.

题目:

According to paragraph 6, which of the following statements is most accurate about young leatherback turtles?

A. They lack the countercurrent exchange systems that develop in adulthood.

B. Their rate of growth is slower than that of other sea turtles.

C. They lose heat easilyeven with insulationand countercurrent exchange systems.

D. They switch between cold-blooded and warm-blooded modes throughout their hatchling stage.

---题目解析:

题目里的关键词应该是“young leatherback turtle”,但是回归文章的时候并没有找到。但是“hatchings”(刚孵化的小动物),是跟它相对应的。Hatchings所在的句子是说,刚刚孵化的太小以至于不能去储存热量,即使他们有绝对层跟逆流交换系统。所以同义转换应该是C。


//因果关系的逻辑词 

如果是针对事实信息题why 开头的题目,也就是问因果,那么要注意段落里表示因果的逻辑词。

托福阅读里经常出现表示结果的词:

therefore/thereby/thus/accordingly/consequently/hence

表示原因的词:because/as/blame A for B/account for/due to等 

Many millions of years after ferns evolved (but long beforethe Hawaiian Islands were born from the sea), another kind of flora evolved on Earth:the seed-bearing plants. This was a wonderful biological invention. The seed hasan outer coating that surrounds the genetic material of the new plant, and insidethis covering is a concentrated supply of nutrients. Thus the seed’s chances of survival aregreatly enhanced over those of the naked spore. One type of seed-bearing plant, the angiosperm, includes all forms of bloomingvegetation. In the angiosperm the seeds are wrapped in an additional layer of covering.Some of these coats are hard-like the shell of a nut-for extra protection. Someare soft and tempting, like tempting, like a peach or a cherry. In some angiosperms,the seeds are equipped with gossamer wings, like the dandelion and milkweed seeds.These new characteristics offered better ways for the seed to move to new habitats.They could travel through the air, float in water, and lie dormant for many months.

题 目:

According to paragraph 4, why do seeds have a greater chance of survival than spores do?To receive credit, you must select TWO answer choices.


A. Seeds need less water to grow into a mature plant thanspores do.

B. Seeds do not need to rely on outside sources of nutrients.

C. Seeds are better protected from environmental dangers thanspores are.

D. Seeds are heavier than spores and are therefore more likelyto take root and grow.

---题目解析:

题目问为什么种子植物的存活率比孢子植物要高。段落里出现了“thus”因果逻辑词。那么原因应该在逻辑词的前面。前面说了两个原因:

1)种子植物有外层;

2)里面这个覆盖物有浓缩的营养。

所以同义转换应该对应的是B/C.如果段落里有出现表示因果的逻辑词,注意考点的出现。

当然,难度更高的题目不会出现非常明显的逻辑词,这就需要我们能看懂句意、看出前后句的逻辑关系的。所以在平时练习过程中,我们还是要不断提升对句子的理解能力。

事实信息题的答案一定是段落里一到两句话的同义转换,换言之,事实信息题答案一定要基于文章事实。如果只是凭着对段落的印象而来选择答案,风险性是非常大的。

提示:任何技巧在实力面前都是渣渣,提升本身能力才是王道啊同志们!


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