当前位置:首页>新闻中心>行业动态>托福资讯

托福写作低于20分的!赶紧来看!

来源:本站发布时间:2019-12-20编辑:苏州朗阁外语培训中心43人看过

Lily老师从业5年 已帮助 300名学员实现留学梦

托福写作话题众多,掌握话题类型和出题特征可以帮助大家定位写作素材和论证手法。

今天,我们从托福独立写作教育话题角度来拆解。本文先讨论教育的一些特征,再结合该话题涉及到的内容,从而使得大家更好的理解该类话题并进行写作。

话题:The aim of education

教育从本质上分成正规教育和非正规教育。非正规教育指的是一个社会过程,在这个过程中人们可以获得自己所需要的知识和技能。而正规教育指的是在课程体系中教师传授知识给学生的过程。

无论在何种形式中,教育的目标是有效学习,促进个人对于社会和自身的理解上的认知和发展。根据上述的定义,正规教育需要学生在掌握学校里的知识和技能的同时,还需要将其运用到课堂之外。

由此,在托福写作教育话题里,我们经常会遇到学习方法、学习内容(包括课内外)等话题内容。

学习方法

It has been said, “Not everything that is learnedis contained in books. ”Compare and contrast knowledge gained from experience with knowledge gained from books. In your opinion, which source is more important? Why?Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

题目翻译:人们常说“并不是所有知识都是从书本里获得”。请比较从书本里获得知识和从经验里获得的知识。并解释哪一个更为重要。

乍看之下,本题是在比较两种知识来源。其实,他们都包含在我们的正规教育中。书本代表了学校里所掌握的知识和技能;经验代表着实践和应用,包括校内外。

区别点是,实践和经历更倾向于为社会服务,满足社会的各种需求;书本知识主要是个人能力的提升和发展。基于以上的理论,我们结合话题,可以形成以下思路——

书本知识和经验获得的知识都不可或缺,两者处于同等重要地位(indispensable/of equal importance)。 

主要论点:

书本知识是先前智慧的总结(the summary of previouswisdom),更有利于学生积累知识(moreconducive for students to accumulate knowledge),更加快速(fastand convenient);

作为理论基础(theoretical basis),书本知识可以更好的运用到实践上(canbe better applied in practice);

社会的发展变化造成了实践和经验的局限(becomethe confinement/ impede the process of practice),但是理论仍旧可以适用在这个变化的过程中(befeasible and available);

书本知识可以有不完善(thereexist imperfection/ faultiness),这就需要我们在继承的基础上去颠覆和创新(subvertand innovate on the basis of inheritance)

相比之下:实践经验积累的知识更为直观(more direct/ impressive),对于学生来说影响深刻(profoundimpact),可以产生更多的内部动力(internalmotivation/ initiative),去探索真理和事实(toexplore truth and fact);

从第一人物视角去检验知识(itis more targeted to test knowledge from the perspective of their own),更具有针对性(pertinence);

虽然同一阶段的学生的认知总体上是相近的(despitethe similarity in the cognition of students at same level),但个体上还是存在差异(individualdifference),因此经验中积累的知识更有个体性(individuality)。 

类似话题:People learn in different ways. Some people learnby doing things; other people learn by reading about things; others by listeningto people talk about things. Which of these methods of learning is best for you? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

学习内容

学习内容主要集中在课堂上,但也有课外内容,即获得与社会相关的知识和技能。在此不得不提出centralcurriculum的必要性。

虽然地方课程在不同地区有所区别,但是他们总体都是遵照中央课程来设置的。毕竟,国家在这些课程的设置中投入了大量的人力和物力,经过专家们的研究并结合了社会发展的特征。这些造就了centralcurriculum完整性和全面性的原因。

从两个阶段来看这种课程,上大学之前的课程在整个教育体系中至关重要,学生可以学习到生命中的基础知识,包括个人成长和社交。而在大学里,更注重个体性发展,所以让学生自己选择他们的专业,促进自我成长。

此,应对话题中出现的课程内容,思考维度放在课程设置中是否有必要添加,这类科目的特征性是什么。相对应的,对于否定科目价值的题干,我们也可以用上述的角度进行攻击。

比如:

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?It is more important for students to study history and literature than it is forthem to study science and mathematics. Use specific reasons and examples to supportyour answer.

题目翻译:

对于学生来说学习历史和文学比学习科学和数学更重要。同意还是不同意。

历史,可以分为广义和狭义。建议在教育中出现历史学习时,可以将历史对应其他科目或者日常生活的各个方面。

比如:

Science(biology):

DNA molecule ---double helix; innovation based on previous discovery; Business:stock market; recession of 2009---future securities analyst; Pre-law: current stateof jurisprudence; the Bill of Rights in 1789; rationale for giving right to votein 1920。


这三个方面就能够很好说明历史的重要性在学科之间的联系。同时,也很好的解释了“以史为鉴”的具体体现。

文学,社会意识形态之一(social ideology)。是运用虚构和想象(fictionand imagination),使用语言塑造形象(shapeimages),反映社会生活(reflect social life),表达思想感情的艺术(expressingthoughts and feelings)。

作为艺术的一种展现形式(asa form of artistic expression ),文学更适合用一些理论进行对应(becorresponded with )

比如:

idealism、rationalismand empiricism以及realism等。这些内容反映了人们对于事物、世界和自我的认知(perception/cognition),更多集中在思想的开发和剖析上(developmentand analysis)。对于学生来说,学习文学有助于他们形成丰富的思想世界,开发想象力和创造力(enrichspiritual world and explore imagination and creativity)。

比如:

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?All students should be required to study art and music in secondary school. Usespecific reasons and examples to support your answer.

题目翻译:所有的中学生都需要上艺术和音乐课。同意否。

艺术,通过塑造形象反映社会生活的一种社会意识形态。艺术形象地反映人们现实生活和精神世界(vividlyreflects people’s real life and spiritual world),满足人们的审美需求(fulfillaesthetic demand)。

字面理解(literally),艺术氛围视觉艺术,比如绘画、雕塑、建筑、音乐、舞蹈等,还有就是语言艺术(文学)。学习艺术对于学生来说可以添加生活的美,即审美感(addbeauty to our surroundings; enhance the sensitivity to beauty and foster aestheticvalue);同时,艺术也是娱乐和休闲的来源(asource of pleasure and relaxation from the stresses of life)。

本题在讨论内容上,多了一个对象限定——中学生,和限定词——all。所以在论证上除了要说明艺术的重要性之外,还需要解释对于中学生来说,添加艺术课程对他们的思想和现阶段的成长有何帮助。相反,如果没有这样的课程设置,对于学生的能力和发展上会出现什么样的弊端。(对比论证的写法)

比如:

Some universities require students to take classesin many subjects. Other universities require students to specialize in one subject.Which is better? Use specific reasons and examples to develop your essay.

话题:The  teacher's role

在教育中,教师起着主导作用(leading role),引导学生积极思考(guidestudents to think independently and positively),激发学生的学习兴趣并提高学习效率(arousetheir interest and improve learning efficiency)。

在托福写作中,与教师有关的话题分两个方向,一个是教师的作用与其他对象的比较;另一个则是教师薪资评定。

取代性

该话题通常呈现比较形式,即教师和网络、教师和学生的比较。

比如:

Some people think that they can learn better bythemselves than with a teacher. Others think that it is always better to have ateacher. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to develop youressay.

题目翻译:

有些人认为自学比跟老师学习更好,其他人则认为有老师学习会更好,你选择哪一种说法?

自学,是一种很好的课后学习方式,更具有主动性。这是一个重要的教育目标,学生应该被培养成一个主动学习者,而不是被动接受知识的人(studentsshould not be treated as passive receptacles of predigested ideas/ incentive motivationcan spur students to achieve best)。

因为学生可以根据自己的学习状态和进度进行学习(learnaccording to their own learning state and progress),这也体现了一定的灵活性(flexibility)。

教师授课对于学生的帮助显而易见,包括引导、激发、组织三方面(guidance/ motivation/organization)。引导学生更好的理解和掌握知识(understandand master knowledge),循序渐进(students are introducedto sequential learning/ follow the principle of gradual improvement),提高学生的知识水平。

激发学生的兴趣,老师通过课堂上的互动,以及课后的交流沟通(throughthe interaction in class and communication after class),帮助学生解决学习上的问题,避免学生上的疲劳和消极情绪(solvetheir learning problems and avoid students' fatigue and negative emotions )。

组织课堂,加强对于学生的监督和管理(strengthenthe supervision and management),增加课堂的趣味性(provideroom for creativity and fun)。

类似话题:

In the future, students may have the choice ofstudying at home by using technology such as computers and television or of studyingat traditional schools. Which would you prefer? Use specific reasons and examplesto develop your essay.


薪资/考评

比如:

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?Teachers should be paid to according to how much their students learn. Use specificreasons and examples to support your answer.

题目翻译:

老师应该根据学生学到了多少来给与工资。同意还是不同意?

教师的薪资往往会和学生的表现联系在一起(be associated with),这是有一定的合理性的(reasonableto some extent)。根据教师的角色定义,学生的学习情况是可以反映出教师的能力和授课态度的(teachingability and attitude)。

同时,这也是一种有效的方式让老师们把中心放在学生的学习反馈上(focuson students’ learning feedback and performance),具有一定的激励作用(incentiveeffect)。

但是学生的表现并不能客观地反映出教师教学的部分内容(cannotobjectively reflect the whole part of the content of teachers' instruction),因为他忽略了教学中学生的主动性和个体性(initiativeand individuality)。

范文分析

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?Teachers’ performances should be evaluated by students rather than by other teachers.

It is generally believed that the performanceof all teachers in the classroom should be evaluated. After all, they play a prominentrole in shaping the minds of learners and exert a considerable amount of influenceover students. It is equally imperative to reward good performance and support thoseteachers who are not competent to improve. Many schools and colleges assign thejob of assessing teachers to their colleagues. I oppose this method, as it is unfairand unjust. I argue that schools should delegate the job to students.

Many people express concerns that professionaland personal friendships between colleagues in school will lead to accusation ofbias and unfair judgments. It is inevitable that personal relations will influenceteachers when they try to objectively assess peers whom their drink coffee withat break times. 

Naturally, to avoid hostility and maintain friendships, teachersmay be inclined to give a glowing assessment to their colleagues, even when it isnot deserved. In contrast, students are in better place to judge their teachers.Though there will be few students will inevitably use this opportunity to “get back”at teachers who told them off or gave them low score, it is still better than peerassessment. Students will give an evaluation that more closely reflects the performanceof their teachers.

Even if teachers were to be objective and unbiased,there would be other compelling reasons why they should not evaluate colleagues.Unlike students who have been taught by the teachers and are in a position to providepersonal feedback, colleagues will have no basis to judge performance upon.  

Teachers have heavy workloads with teaching andmarking and have little time to observe colleagues in a classroom for an hour ormore, and even if they manage to do this, this is not a true reflection of the abilityof a person. Given that objective judgement comes from close and ongoing observance,the evaluation of a fellow teacher can hardly serve as a reliable indicator of theirperformance. 

On the other hand, students, who directly observe teachers and learnfrom them, can determine their effectiveness as teachers. They can assess whetherthe teacher as subject knowledge, is supportive of students and provides guidancebeyond the classroom, and judge the appropriateness of the content.

In conclusion,students, rather than colleagues, should be asked to evaluate the teachers, as itis a more appropriate and fairer method.

以上分析

整理了托福独立写作教育类话题的几个核心考题

深入分析了题干中的核心词

并讲述了写作的思路

文章有点长

但是质量很高哦

希望能帮助到大家在教育话题上的理解~


精品课程更多

苏州小托福(TOEFL Junior)强化钻石晚间班

开课日期:滚动开班
适合人群:初中

苏州SAT基础提高晚间班

开课日期:滚动开班
适合人群:初中

苏州GMAT培训强化提高全日制班

开课日期:滚动开班
适合人群:四六级

苏州GRE培训强化VIP全日制班

开课日期:滚动开班
适合人群:四六级

免费领取500元优惠券

校区地址

旗舰校区:姑苏区干将东路566号宏盛大厦

石湖校区:江苏省苏州市虎丘区汇金科创中心2号楼

园区VIP校区:苏州市工业园区苏州大道西8号中银惠龙大厦

独墅湖校区:苏州市工业园区独墅湖林泉街368号科教人才市场

独墅湖文星校区:苏州市工业园区独墅湖高教区仁爱路1号百年职业学院c栋

QQ咨询:

关注朗阁雅思